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Latest Scientific Studies

See All of the Latest Studies on Breath Acetone Here

Studies on Low Carb & Keto are below:

23 Randomized, Controlled and Peer Reviewed Studies Prove Low-Carb is Not a "Fad" Diet but a Powerful Health Protocol in Disease Prevention 

Vanessa Spina, SNS


Carbohydrates vs fat.

Calories in vs. calories out. 

Very low calorie diets vs eating high fat. 

Eating 6 small meals a day and "grazing" versus intermittent fasting & meal timing.

Juice cleanses and detoxes vs. engaging autophagy with water fasting.

Fat and macronutrients, calories or energy balance, meal timing are all hotly debated topics in the health and nutrition space.

The position maintained by most mainstream health organizations is that higher levels of fat, especially saturated fats) in the diet is a leading cause of all kinds of health problems, especially heart disease. Accordingly, the recommendations being made by these organizations is that individuals restrict dietary fat to less than 30% of total calories (a low-fat diet).
However... in the past 11 years, an increasing number of studies have been challenging the low-fat dietary approach.Many health professionals now believe that a low-carb diet (higher in fat and protein) is a much better option to treat obesity and other chronic, Western diseases.In this article, I have analyzed the data from 23 of these studies comparing low-carb and low-fat diets.

All of the studies are randomized controlled trials, the gold standard of science. All are published in respected, peer-reviewed journals.

Most of the studies are being conducted on people with health problems, including overweight/obesity, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Keep in mind that these are the biggest health problems in the world.

The main outcomes measured are usually weight loss, as well as common risk factors like Total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Blood Sugar levels.



New Study Favors Fat Over Carbs

"High carbohydrate intake is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and high fat intake with a lower risk, researchers report.

An international team of scientists studied diet and mortality in 135,335 people between 35 and 70 years old in 18 countries, following them for an average of more than seven years. Diet information depended on self-reports, and the scientists controlled for factors including age, sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. The study is in The Lancet.

Compared with people who ate the lowest 20 percent of carbohydrates, those who ate the highest 20 percent had a 28 percent increased risk of dying earlier. But high carbohydrate intake was not associated with cardiovascular death.

People with the highest 20 percent in total fat intake — an average of 35.3 percent of calories from fat — had about a 23 percent reduced risk of death compared with the lowest 20 percent (an average of 10.6 percent of calories from fat). Consuming higher saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were all associated with lower mortality. Higher fat diets were also associated with a lower risk of stroke."



Low-fat diet could kill you, major study shows

"Low-fat diets could raise the risk of early death by almost one quarter, a major study has found.

The Lancet study of 135,000 adults found those who cut back on fats had far shorter lives than those enjoying plenty of butter, cheese and meats.

Researchers said the study was at odds with repeated health advice to cut down on fats.

But the latest research, presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, in Barcelona found those with low intake of saturated fat raised chances of early death by 13 per cent compared to those eating plenty. 

And consuming high levels of all fats cut mortality by up to 23 per cent.

The Canadian study tracked eating patterns and death rates across 18 countries."


Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients


The weight and body mass index of the patients decreased significantly (P<0.0001). The level of total cholesterol decreased from week 1 to week 24. HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased significantly following 24 weeks of treatment. The level of blood glucose significantly decreased. The changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant.


The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.


Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects.

Dashti HM1, Mathew TC, Khadada M, Al-Mousawi M, Talib H, Asfar SK, Behbahani AI, Al-Zaid NS


The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant.


This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects.


Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

Antonio Paoli

Author information  Article notes  Copyright and License information 

A period of low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may help to control hunger and may improve fat oxidative metabolism and therefore reduce body weight. Furthermore new kinds of ketogenic diets using meals that mimic carbohydrate rich foods could improve the compliance to the diet [78]. Attention should be paid to patient’s renal function and to the transition phase from ketogenic diet to a normal diet that should be gradual and well controlled [69]. The duration of ketogenic diet may range from a minimum (to induce the physiological ketosis) of 2–3 weeks to a maximum (following a general precautionary principle) of many months (6–12 months). Correctly understood the ketogenic diet can be a useful tool to treat obesity in the hands of the physician.


The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

David N. Ruskin1 and Susan A. Masino1,*

A KD offers known benefits for epilepsy, and it is apparent that the relationship between metabolism and brain function offers primary therapeutic opportunities. Basic and clinical research is acutely aware that metabolic dysfunction and comorbidities promulgate lifelong impacts on nervous system function. Particularly promising unrealized opportunities for intervention and restoration of metabolic homeostasis occur during development, after injury, and during disease progression – all windows with high levels of plasticity and remodeling. New insight into mechanisms could accelerate development of treatments.


Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

Michal M. Poplawski,1 Jason W. Mastaitis,2 Fumiko Isoda,1 Fabrizio Grosjean,3 Feng Zheng,3 and Charles V. Mobbs1,*

Krisztian Stadler, Editor

“In contrast to previous studies in which good glucose control prevented, but did not reverse, nephropathy in a model of Type 1 diabetes [2], in the present studies the ketogenic diet reversed nephropathy, as reflected by albumin/creatinine ratios, after it had developed in models of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The reversal of functional nephropathy was associated with robust normalization of expression of genes induced by oxidative and other forms of stress. In contrast to the complete reversal of nephropathy as reflected by albuminuria and gene expression, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partially reversed in the model for Type 2 diabetes (kidneys from the Akita mice were not available for histological analysis). This suggests, perhaps not surprisingly, that functional and molecular aspects of nephropathy reverse more quickly than morphological aspects of diabetic nephropathy.”


Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

Eric H. Kossoff, MD and Adam L. Hartman, MD

Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.


The use of dietary therapies for children with intractable epilepsy continues to grow in popularity both clinically and from a research perspective. Recent years have seen strong interest in new indications for this treatment, new methods of initiation and maintenance, new “alternative” diets such as the modified Atkins diet, usage in adults, first-line consideration, preventing adverse effects, and basic science collaborations.


A Ketogenic Diet in Rodents Elicits Improved Mitochondrial Adaptations in Response to Resistance Exercise Training Compared to an Isocaloric Western Diet

Hayden W. Hyatt,1 Wesley C. Kephart,1 A. Maleah Holland,1 Petey Mumford,1 C. Brooks Mobley,1 Ryan P. Lowery,2Michael D. Roberts,1 Jacob M. Wilson,2 and Andreas N. Kavazis1,*

Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.



Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets


Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

There are new and exciting scenarios about the use of ketogenic diets, as discussed in this review, in cancer, T2D, PCOS, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Further studies are warranted to investigate more in detail the potential therapeutic mechanisms, its effectiveness and safety, and we would invite all researchers to face this challenge without prejudice.

The effects of ketogenic dieting on skeletal muscle and fat mass


Lean body mass increased to a greater extent in the VLCKD (4.3 ± 1.7 kgs ) as compared to the traditional group (2.2 kg ± 1.7). Ultrasound determined muscle mass increased to a greater extent in the VLCKD group (0.4 ± 0.25 cm) as compared to the traditional western group (0.19 ± 0.26 cm). Finally fat mass decreased to a greater extent in the VLCKD group (-2.2 kg ± 1.2 kg) as compared to the (- 1.5 ± 1.6 kg).


These results indicate that VLCKD may have more favorable changes in LBM, muscle mass, and body fatness as compared to a traditional western diet in resistance trained males.


Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

Keywords: inflammatory cytokines, ketogenic diet, weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3


Our data confirms the positive effects of a Mediterranean ketogenic diet with phytoextracts on weight loss, body composition, blood lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers. Moreover, our results suggest that omega 3 supplementation does not alter the effects of a KD on body weight reduction, fat loss, or blood cholesterol profile improvement, but rather it increases further the KD’s positive effects on inflammatory markers, adiponectin, insulin, and blood triglycerides. These conclusions are consistent with previous observations on the anti-inflammatory effects of carbohydrate reduction but for the first time we have demonstrated the usefulness of Ω-3 supplementation during a ketogenic diet. This kind of supplementation may optimize the positive effects of KDs on some cardiovascular risk markers and on obesity-related chronic low grade inflammation.



Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

Five symptoms common to most definitions of MetS are those that are reliably improved by CHO restriction. Carbohydrate restriction is one strategy for weight loss but, in addition, improves glycemic control, insulin levels, TAG and HDL levels even in the absence of weight loss. We suggest that response to CHO restriction may, in fact, be an operational definition of MetS. Its underlying basis would rest on the idea that the features of MetS are associated with a disruption in insulin metabolism which is strongly influenced by dietary CHO. The extent to which this definition is useful may depend on its application by individual practitioners. Experimental studies that follow its lead or conversely disprove its fundamental premise should advance our understanding of obesity, diabetes and CVD. Dismissing CHO restriction without evidence, or expressing "concerns" rather than offering data will probably be less productive.

Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat

The prevalence of obesity is increasing and there is a need for safe and effective long term weight loss strategies. Low carbohydrate ketogenic diets have the potential to be one such strategy and recent research supports the notion that these diets may be as effective or more effective than regular calorie restricted diets, both in reducing body weight and in improving metabolic disorders [1-4]. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with a cluster of metabolic risk factors related to insulin resistance [5]. Carbohydrate restricted diets seem to improve glycemic control and other features of the metabolic syndrome, and are generally found to beneficially influence risk factors for cardiovascular diseases [5,6].
Although this study was not designed to fully elucidate the mechanisms behind the observed body composition changes, the study has shown that resistance exercise performed twice weekly in overweight women on a low carbohydrate ketogenic may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of a low carbohydrate diet and resistance exercise.

Ketogenic Diets and Pain

Susan A. Masino, Ph.D.* and David N. Ruskin, Ph.D.
Inflammation is increasingly appreciated as part of the epileptogenic process, and becomes ever more strongly associated with neurological problems in young and old alike. For example, autism is associated increasingly with maternal inflammation, and seizures are often comorbid. Inflammation and seizures are similarly comorbid with Alzheimer's disease,, and recent work has highlighted benefits of metabolic therapies in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recent reviews have highlighted the potential for ketogenic diets in diverse disorders., Aside from disease-based processes, cognitive impairment has been observed alongside prediabetes even in adolescents, thus underscoring the ability for altered metabolic homeostasis to affect brain function throughout the lifetime. A major research focus should be on how metabolic interventions such as a ketogenic diet can ameliorate common, comorbid, and difficult-to-treat conditions such as pain and inflammation.

Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction.


Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss.


A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.


Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on emerging plasma markers for cardiovascular disease


A diet based on restricting carbohydrates leads to spontaneous caloric reduction and subsequent improvement in emerging markers of CVD in overweight/obese men who are otherwise healthy.


ALS and Keto

"As a practicing neurologist dealing with ALS on an almost daily basis I feel it is important to share this information. This is why I have incorporated a ketogenic diet in the list of recommendations I make to patients who are looking for any possible leads that may help with this condition. It is known that a diet that converts metabolism to a ketogenic state, meaning burning fat not carbohydrates, is effective in protecting nerve cells and preserving their ability to make energy. With that in mind, ALS researchers explored the effectiveness of a ketogenic, high fat diet, in the treatment of the mouse model of ALS and demonstrated some pretty remarkable results. This remarkable report from researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York was the first to show a substantial benefit in the treatment of ALS in the animal model using a ketogenic diet."


"For the first time, researchers have shown that diet can alter the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a mouse model of the disease. In a new study, Giulio Pasinetti (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA) and colleagues fed a high-energy ketogenic diet to transgenic ALS mice and showed that motor performance was preserved and motor neuron counts were significantly higher than in control mice (BMC Neuroscience 2006; 7: 29)."